Vasculitic peripheral neuropathy (VPN) arises from an inflammatory obstruction in the blood vessels supplying peripheral nerves and subsequent ischemic insults, which exhibits the clinical features of neuropathic pain and impaired peripheral nerve function. VPN induced by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) has been reported to involve nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-mediated neuroinflammation. Recent studies have suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the development of peripheral neuropathies. Resveratrol possesses a potent anti-inflammatory capacity. We hypothesized that resveratrol may exert a protective effect against VPN through modulating the interrelated ER stress and NF-κB pathways. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into 5 groups: sham, sham + resveratrol 40 mg/kg (R40), IR, IR + R20 and IR + R40. VPN was induced by occluding the right femoral artery for 4 hours followed by reperfusion. Our data has shown that VPN induced by IR led to hind paw mechanical allodynia, heat hyperalgesia, and impaired motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV). With resveratrol intervention, the behavioral parameters were improved in a dose-dependent manner and the MNCV levels were increased as well. The molecular data revealed that VPN induced by IR significantly increased the expression of NF-κB as well as the ER stress sensor proteins, protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme 1 and activating transcription factor 6 in the sciatic nerves. More importantly, resveratrol significantly attenuated the expression of NF-κB and the ER stress sensor proteins after IR. In conclusion, resveratrol alleviates VPN induced by IR. The mechanisms may involve modulating NF-κB-mediated neuroinflammation via suppressing ER stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.