Chronic pain is a common, complex, and distressing problem that has a profound impact on individuals and society. It frequently presents as a result of a disease or an injury; however, it is not merely an accompanying symptom, but rather a separate condition in its own right, with its own medical definition and taxonomy. Studying the distribution and determinants of chronic pain allows us to understand and manage the problem at the individual and population levels. Targeted and appropriate prevention and management strategies need to take into account the biological, psychological, socio-demographic, and lifestyle determinants and outcomes of pain. We present a narrative review of the current understanding of these factors.