Oxaliplatin is a third-generation derivative of platinum that is effective in the treatment of multiple solid tumors. However, it can cause peripheral neuropathic pain, and the molecular mechanisms of this effect remain unknown. We induced a model of peripheral neuropathic pain in rats by intraperitoneally injecting them with oxaliplatin twice a week for 4.5 weeks. We found that both the mRNA and protein expression levels of Na1.6 (encoded by the gene Scn8a) increased while the miR-30b-5p (shorthand for miR-30b) expression decreased in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of treated rats. Using TargetScan and miRanda predictive software, we discovered that Scn8a was a major target of miR-30b. Moreover, we found that miR-30b negatively regulated Scn8a by binding to the Scn8a 3'UTR in PC12 cells. In addition, Na1.6 and miR-30b were colocalized in the DRG neurons of naive rats. Overexpression of miR-30b using an miR-30b agomir attenuated neuropathic pain induced by oxaliplatin and inhibited both the mRNA and protein expression levels of Na1.6 both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, the inhibition of miR-30b with an miR-30b antagomir resulted in neuropathic pain and an increase in the expression of Na1.6. More importantly, overexpression of miR-30b inhibited the proliferation of LS-174t cells (Colorectal cancer cells). These data suggest that miR-30b contributes to oxaliplatin-induced chronic neuropathic pain through Na1.6 downregulation and could be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain as a side effect of chemotherapy in cancer patients.