It has been reported that skin/muscle incision and retraction (SMIR) in the thigh, produces mechanical allodynia in the hind paw, far from the site of incision/retraction. The mechanical allodynia lasts about 22 days, indicating chronic post-operative pain develops. The precise mechanisms, however, are largely unclear. In the current study, we further found that SMIR surgery induced LTP of c-fiber evoked field potentials that lasted at least 4 h. The mRNA and protein level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and acetylated nuclear factor-kappaB p65 (ac-NF-κB p65) in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn was gradually increased during LTP development, while pretreatment with either TNFα neutralization antibody or NF-κB inhibitor PDTC completely prevented the induction of LTP. Moreover, the expression of Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn was decreased and activation of SIRT1 by SRT1720 also prevented the induction of LTP. Importantly, the spinal expression of Liver X receptors (LXRs) was increased, both at mRNA and protein level following SMIR. Application of LXRs agonist T0901317 to the spinal dorsal horn prevented LTP induction following SMIR. Mechanistically, T0901317 enhanced the expression of SIRT1 and decreased the expression of ac-NF-κB p65 and TNFα. Spinal application of SIRT1 antagonist EX-527, 30 min before T0901317 administration, completely blocked the inhibiting effect of T0901317 on LTP, and on expression of ac-NF-κB p65 and TNFα. These results indicated that activation of LXRs prevented SMIR-induced LTP by inhibiting NF-κB/TNFα pathway via increasing SIRT1 expression.