This retrospective study was carried out to investigate factors affecting the prognosis of gliomas for better management of treatment. Clinical data from 186 glioma patients treated in our hospital from January 2013 to June 2016 were analyzed. There was slightly more male than female patients in the cohort. The main clinical symptoms included sudden limb twitching, headache and fatigue, vomiting, vision reduction and speaking disorders. The malignancy was high and the prognosis was poor in the patients, with an overall survival rate of 54.84 % by October 2017. Univariate analysis showed that the prognosis was mainly affected by age, tumor grade, preoperative Karnofsky performance status (KPS), surgical method, postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and postoperative use of temozolomide (TMZ). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the independent risk factors for the prognosis were old age (≥ 60), advanced tumor, partial tumor resection, KPS of < 70, no chemotherapy after operation and < 4 courses of postoperative TMZ. The prognosis is negatively affected by age, tumor grade, KPS, and partial tumor resection. Surgical resection combined with chemotherapy and multi-course use of TMZ prolongs the survival time of patients.