I am a
Home I AM A Search Login

Papers of the Week

2019 Dec




The granulopoietic cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) induces pain: analgesia by rutin.


Carvalho TT, Mizokami SS, Ferraz CR, Manchope MF, Borghi SM, Fattori V, Calixto-Campos C, Camilios-Neto D, Casagrande R, Verri WA
Inflammopharmacology. 2019 Dec; 27(6):1285-1296.
PMID: 30945072.


Rutin is a glycone form of the flavonol quercetin and it reduces inflammatory pain in animal models. Therapy with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is known by the pain caused as its main side effect. The effect of rutin and its mechanisms of action were evaluated in a model of hyperalgesia induced by G-CSF in mice. The mechanical hyperalgesia induced by G-CSF was reduced by treatment with rutin in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with both rutin + morphine or rutin + indomethacin, at doses that are ineffectual per se, significantly reduced the pain caused by G-CSF. The nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-protein kinase G (PKG)-ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K) signaling pathway activation is one of the analgesic mechanisms of rutin. Rutin also reduced the pro-hyperalgesic and increased anti-hyperalgesic cytokine production induced by G-CSF. Furthermore, rutin inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB), which might explain the inhibition of the cytokine production. Treatment with rutin upregulated the decreased mRNA expression of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) combined with enhancement of the mRNA expression of the Nrf2 downstream target heme oxygenase (HO-1). Intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment with rutin did not alter the mobilization of neutrophils induced by G-CSF. The analgesia by rutin can be explained by: NO-cGMP-PKG-K channel signaling activation, inhibition of NFκB and triggering the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. The present study demonstrates rutin as a promising pharmacological approach to treat the pain induced by G-CSF without impairing its primary therapeutic benefit of mobilizing hematopoietic progenitor cells into the blood.