The identification of new indications for approved or failed drugs is a process called drug repositioning or drug repurposing. The motivation includes overcoming the productivity gap that exists in drug development, which is a high-cost-high-risk process. Repositioning also includes rescuing drugs that have safely entered the market but have failed to demonstrate sufficient efficiency for the initial clinical indication. Considering the high prevalence of chronic pain, the lack of sufficient efficacy and the safety issues of current analgesics, repositioning seems to be an attractive approach. This review presents example of drugs that already have been repositioned and highlights new technologies that are available for the identification of additional compounds to stimulate the curiosity of readers for further exploration.