Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition characterized by a burning sensation of the oral cavity and is often associated with taste disturbances and xerostomia. It primarily affects menopausal or postmenopausal women. Idiopathic or primary BMS can occur spontaneously and without any identifiable precipitating factors. When BMS is associated with systemic factors, it is defined as secondary BMS. While the exact etiology of BMS is still unknown, the condition appears to be multifactorial, and numerous local, systemic, and psychological factors have been associated with it. Primary BMS is a diagnosis of exclusion and can only be reached after all potential causes of secondary burning pain have been eliminated. Management strategies include reassurance of the patient as well as pharmacologic agents such as clonazepam, supplements such as α-lipoic acid, and psychological therapy.