Microglia play a critical role in neuropathic pain. Since upregulated Foxp3 in microglia enhances tissue repair by resolving neuroinflammation in excitotoxin-induced neuronal death, it may attenuate neuropathic pain in a similar manner. Therefore, this study tests whether Foxp3 introduced with poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (Foxp3 NPs) can alleviate neuropathic pain by inhibiting microglia activity. The prepared Foxp3 NPs had an anti-inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 cells in vitro, and localized to spinal microglia in vivo. Further, the Foxp3 NPs significantly attenuated pain behavior induced by spinal nerve ligation in rats for 7days by suppressing microglial activity, followed by the downregulation of pro-nociceptive genes and the upregulation of anti-nociceptive genes in the spinal dorsal horn. Collectively, these data suggest that Foxp3 NPs effectively relieve neuropathic pain in animals by reducing microglia activity and subsequent modulation of neuroinflammation, and may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of neuropathic pain.