The headache phase of migraine could in selected cases potentially be treated by surgical decompression of one or more "trigger sites," located at frontal, temporal, nasal, and occipital sites. This systematic review with subsequent meta-analysis aims at critically evaluating the currently available evidence for the surgical treatment of migraine headache and to determine the effect size of this treatment in a specific patient population. This study was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. An online database search was performed. Inclusion was based on studies published between 2000 and March 2018, containing a diagnosis of migraine in compliance with the classification of the International Headache Society. The treatment must consist of one or more surgical procedures involving the extracranial nerves and/or arteries with outcome data available at minimum 6 months. Eight hundred and forty-seven records were identified after duplicates were removed, 44 full text articles were assessed and 14 records were selected for inclusion. A total number of 627 patients were included in the analysis. A proportion of 0.38 of patients (random effects model, 95% CI [0.30-0.46]) experienced elimination of migraine headaches at 6-12 months follow-up. Using data from three randomized controlled trials, the calculated odds ratio for 90-100% elimination of migraine headaches is 21.46 (random effects model, 95% CI [5.64-81.58]) for patients receiving migraine surgery compared to sham or no surgery. Migraine surgery leads to elimination of migraine headaches in 38% of the migraine patients included in this review. However, more elaborate randomized trials are needed with transparent reporting of patient selection, medication use, and surgical procedures and implementing detailed and longer follow-up times.