Patients with irritable bowel syndrome suffer from chronic visceral pain, and in some of them, this is accompanied by anxiety comorbidity. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1) mediates the cytoplasmic polyadenylation of mRNAs and facilitates their translation. Our previous studies have shown that CPEB1 knockdown in the amygdala exerts anxiolytic but not analgesic effects in a mouse model of inflammatory pain. However, the roles of CPEB1 in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in visceral pain modulation remain unclear. In this study, a visceral pain mouse model was established by injecting zymosan into the colon of mice. Zymosan injection significantly induced visceral pain- and anxiety-like behaviors in mice and increased the levels of GluA1, phosphorylated GluA1 at S845 and S831, and CPEB1 in the ACC. CPEB1 knockdown in the ACC by AAV-CPEB1-shRNA reduced zymosan-induced pain- and anxiety-like behaviors in mice. This observation was closely correlated with reduced AMPA receptor, synaptophysin, and PSD95 levels. These data suggest that CPEB1 in the ACC is a potential therapeutic target for visceral pain and anxiety comorbidity.