The aim of this study was to evaluate skeletal pain associated with osteoporosis and examine the inhibitory effect of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on pain in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. The mechanism of osteoporotic pain in OVX mice was evaluated by examining pain-related behavior and immunohistochemistry. The effects of IL-6 receptor inhibitor (IL-6i) on these parameters were also assessed. Eight-week-old female ddY mice were ovariectomized and assigned to three groups: OVX mice treated with vehicle (OVX); OVX mice treated with alendronate (OVX-ALN); and OVX mice treated with anti-IL-6 receptor (anti-IL-6R) antibody (OVX-IL6i). Sham-operated mice were treated with vehicle. Immediately after surgery, vehicle, ALN, or anti-IL-6R antibody was injected subcutaneously. After a 4-week treatment, mechanical sensitivity was examined using von Frey filaments. The bilateral distal femoral metaphyses and proximal tibial metaphyses were analyzed three-dimensionally with micro-computed tomography. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression in L3-L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons was examined using immunohistochemistry. Ovariectomy induced bone loss and mechanical hyperalgesia in the hindlimbs with upregulation of CGRP expression in the DRG neurons innervating the hindlimbs. ALN treatment prevented bone loss, but anti-IL-6R antibody treatment had no effect on bone morphometry compared with that of the OVX group. However, mechanical hyperalgesia and CGRP expression were significantly decreased in the OVX-IL6i and OVX-ALN groups compared with those in the OVX group. Although anti-IL-6R antibody treatment had no effect on ovariectomy-induced bone loss, the treatment prevented ovariectomy-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in the hindlimbs and suppressed CGRP expression in DRG neurons. The results suggest that IL-6 is one of the causes of postmenopausal osteoporotic pain, and anti-IL-6R antibody might preserve bone health and decrease osteoporotic pain.