T-type calcium channels serve an essential role in the functioning of the nervous system. They exhibit unique properties among voltage-gated calcium channels, and mediate specific roles in brain function. Over the recent years, it has come to light that a number of chronic neurological disorders arise from defects in T-type channel function. The question then arises as to whether T-type channels could represent a relevant druggable target. In this review, we introduce the diversity, molecular structure, and principal electrophysiological properties of T-type channels. Then, we highlight their role in neuronal development, and their pathophysiological role in the nervous system. Finally, we discuss the potential of T-type channels as therapeutic targets in light of recent advances in their pharmacopoeia.