Visceral pain, a common characteristic of multiple diseases relative to viscera, impacts millions of people worldwide. Although hundreds of studies have explored mechanisms underlying visceral pain, it is still poorly managed. Over the past decade, strong evidence emerged suggesting that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a significant role in visceral nociception through altering neurotransmitters, receptors and other genes at the posttranscriptional level. Under pathological conditions, one kind of miRNA may have several target mRNAs and several kinds of miRNAs may act on one target, suggesting complex interactions and mechanisms between miRNAs and target genes lead to pathological states. In this review we report on recent progress in examining miRNAs responsible for visceral sensitization and provide miRNA-based therapeutic targets for the management of visceral pain.