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The 2024 Global Year will examine what is known about sex and gender differences in pain perception and modulation and address sex-and gender-related disparities in both the research and treatment of pain.

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If you use material from the IASP Pain Research Forum in your own work, please cite us.

The basic format for citing PRF is:

Author(s), if given; Title of the specific item cited, if any; Pain Research ForumURLPublished and/or updated date, if any; Accessed date.


Fred Schwaller. Neutrophils put the brakes on acute pain becoming chronic. Pain Research Forum. 25 May 2022. Available at: https://www.iasp-pain.org/publications/pain-research-forum/prf-news/198286-neutrophils-put-brakes-acute-pain-becoming-chronic. Accessed 27 May 2022.

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