Oral health is an integral part of every child's overall wellness and affects their development, family, and social life, as well as school performance; it should be addressed at every well-child visit. Tooth decay continues to be the most prevalent yet preventable chronic disease of childhood; it leads to unnecessary pain, infections, poor academic performance, and frequent school absences and adds an unnecessary financial burden to the health care system. Despite improvements in oral health, disparities continue to exist for children from minority backgrounds and lower socioeconomic status. As primary care providers for children, it is important to understand factors that lead to oral disease and be able to anticipate, treat, and, most important, prevent oral disease in children early in their development. .