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Original Research, Animal Studies, Human Studies, Pharmacology/Drug Development, Itch

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A TRPA1 inhibitor suppresses neurogenic inflammation and airway contraction for asthma treatment.

Despite the development of effective therapies, a substantial proportion of asthmatics continue to have uncontrolled symptoms, airflow limitation, and exacerbations. Transient receptor potential cation channel member A1 (TRPA1) agonists are elevated in human asthmatic airways, and in rodents, TRPA1 is involved in the induction of airway inflammation and hyperreactivity. Here, the discovery and early clinical development of GDC-0334, a highly potent, selective, and orally bioavailable TRPA1 antagonist, is described. GDC-0334 inhibited TRPA1 function on airway smooth muscle and sensory neurons, decreasing edema, dermal blood flow (DBF), cough, and allergic airway inflammation in several preclinical species. In a healthy volunteer Phase 1 study, treatment with GDC-0334 reduced TRPA1 agonist-induced DBF, pain, and itch, demonstrating GDC-0334 target engagement in humans. These data provide therapeutic rationale for evaluating TRPA1 inhibition as a clinical therapy for asthma.

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Cross-talk between Human Spinal Cord μ-opioid Receptor 1Y Isoform and Gastrin-releasing Peptide Receptor Mediates Opioid-induced Scratching Behavior.

The spinal administration of opioids can cause intense pruritisInteractions between specific μ-opioid receptor isoforms and the gastrin releasing peptide receptor in spinal tissues likely mediate morphine-induced pruritus WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: Human spinal cord tissue expresses the 1Y isoform of the μ-opioid receptor, and that isoform functionally interacts with the gastrin releasing peptide receptor to cause cellular calcium influxBlocking interactions between the 1Y isoform and the gastrin releasing peptide receptor does not reduce opioid analgesiaEliminating interactions between the 1Y isoform and the gastrin releasing peptide receptor or reducing 1Y isoform activation may reduce opioid-induced pruritis BACKGROUND:: Although spinal opioids are safe and effective, pruritus is common and distressing. The authors previously demonstrated in mouse spinal cord that interactions between μ-opioid receptor isoform 1D and gastrin releasing peptide receptor mediate morphine-induced scratch. The C-terminal of 1D inhibits morphine-induced scratch without affecting analgesia. The authors hypothesize that human spinal cord also contains itch-specific μ-opioid receptor isoforms which interact with gastrin releasing peptide receptor.

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