Sleep problems are common among Veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and may contribute to participation restrictions. However, explanatory mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. Sleep problems are associated with post-concussive symptoms (e.g., headaches). In turn, post-concussive symptoms contribute to participation restrictions. We hypothesized that post-concussive symptom severity mediates the purported relationship between sleep problems and participation restrictions among Veterans with mTBI.