Surgical correction of paediatric spinal deformity is associated with risks, adverse events, and complications that must be preoperatively discussed with patients and their families to inform treatment decisions, expectations, and long-term outcomes. The incidence of complications varies in relation to the underlying aetiology of spinal deformity and surgical procedure. Intraoperative complications include bleeding, neurological injury, and those related to positioning. Postoperative complications include persistent pain, surgical site infection, venous thromboembolism, pulmonary complications, superior mesenteric artery syndrome, and also pseudarthrosis and implant failure, proximal junctional kyphosis, crankshaft phenomenon, and adding-on deformity, which may necessitate revision surgery. Interventions included in enhanced recovery after surgery protocols may reduce the incidence of complications. Complications must be diagnosed, investigated and managed expeditiously to prevent further deterioration and to ensure optimal outcomes. This review summarises the complications associated with paediatric spinal deformity surgery and their management.