Neuropathic pain is a chronic pain condition that occurs after nerve damage; allodynia, which refers to pain caused by generally innocuous stimuli, is a hallmark symptom. Although allodynia is often resistant to analgesics, the antidepressant duloxetine has been used as an effective therapeutic option. Duloxetine increases spinal noradrenaline (NA) levels by inhibiting its transporter at NAergic terminals in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH), which has been proposed to contribute to its pain-relieving effect. However, the mechanism through which duloxetine suppresses neuropathic allodynia remains unclear. Here, we identified an SDH inhibitory interneuron subset (captured by adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors incorporating a rat promoter; AAV-NpyP neurons) that is mostly depolarized by NA. Furthermore, this excitatory effect was suppressed by pharmacological blockade or genetic knockdown of α-adrenoceptors (ARs) in AAV-NpyP SDH neurons. We found that duloxetine suppressed Aβ fiber-mediated allodynia-like behavioral responses after nerve injury and that this effect was not observed in AAV-NpyP SDH neuron-selective α-AR-knockdown. These results indicate that α-AR and AAV-NpyP neurons are critical targets for spinal NA and are necessary for the therapeutic effect of duloxetine on neuropathic pain, which can support the development of novel analgesics.