To elucidate the safety and efficacy of one-stage total spondylectomy and circumferential reconstruction through a combined anterior retropharyngeal-posterior approach for axial tumors. A total of 20 patients with axial tumor who received total spondylectomy through a combined anterior retropharyngeal-posterior approach in Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology from February 2006 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Anterior reconstruction was performed with a special-shaped titanium mesh or three-dimensional printed (3DP) implants. The degree of local pain and neurological function was assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Frankel classification systems, respectively. Status of internal fixation and local recurrence was analyzed by radiological examination during follow-up. Among the 20 patients, 12 were male and 8 were female with a mean age of (59.1±11.0) years (31 to 72 years). The mean operation time was (605.0±60.1) minutes (430 to 700 minutes) with a mean intraoperative blood loss of (1 250±347) ml (800 to 2 400 ml). The mean postoperative hospital stay was (13.2±2.8) days (8 to 20 days), and mean follow-up duration was (37.2±14.2) months(14 to 66 months). Anterior reconstructions were performed with a special-shaped titanium mesh in 14 patients and with 3DP implants in another 6 patients. Posterior occipital-cervical fixation was performed in 5 patients, while cervical fixation only in another 15 patients. The mean VAS score of pain at the last follow-up decreased significantly when compared with that before operation (1.6±0.6 vs 7.1±1.1, <0.001). Nine patients with neurological deficits indicated significant improvement by at least 1 level at the last follow-up; among them, 2 cases of Frankel B improved to Frankel C and D, respectively; 3 cases of Frankel C all improved to Frankel D, and 4 cases of Frankel D improved to Frankel E. The perioperative complications included: 2 cases of vertebral artery injury, 2 cases of dysphagia, 3 cases of hoarseness and cough, 2 cases of cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and 1 case of greater occipital neuralgia. At the last follow-up, 5 patients died and 3 patients relapsed. Only 1 case suffered fixation failure due to local recurrence at the last follow up. One-stage total spondylectomy and circumferential reconstruction through a combined anterior retropharyngeal-posterior approach is safe and effective for axial tumors with favorable clinical outcomes and minor complications. Circumferential reconstruction with special-shaped titanium mesh or 3DP implant and posterior fixation can effectively reconstruct mechanical stability.