Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that can have serious physical and emotional consequences for patients in terms of pain, quality of life, and infertility. Despite affecting about 10% of women, the pathophysiology and economic impact of the disease are not fully understood. This study aimed to review and summarize research articles quantifying the direct and indirect costs of endometriosis in the context of current national and international treatment guidelines. A search including the terms 'endometriosis' AND 'costs' OR 'cost of illness' OR 'cost analysis' OR 'economic burden' was performed, focusing on studies published between January 2000 and May 2022. Total costs, costs of primary and secondary care, productivity losses, and indirect costs were reported. The medical costs of endometriosis were principally registered in secondary care settings, where surgery was the main cost driver. There was considerable variability of populations and study settings, with the overall direct medical cost range of endometriosis from US$1459 to US$20,239 (2022) per patient per year. An increasing trend has been reported in secondary care costs over time; however, not enough data were available at this time to evaluate inpatient and outpatient costs versus treatment strategies. Similarly, further research is required to evaluate the costs and potential savings associated with new therapies. Numerous studies have evaluated the indirect costs of endometriosis in recent years, finding costs between US$4572 and US$14,079 (2022). Currently, limited data are available on the economic burden of the disease at the patient level.