Neuropathic pain is a debilitating form of pain arising from injury or disease of the nervous system that affects millions of people worldwide. Despite its prevalence, the underlying mechanisms of neuropathic pain are still not fully understood. Dendritic spines are small protrusions on the surface of neurons that play an important role in synaptic transmission. Recent studies have shown that dendritic spines reorganize in the superficial and deeper laminae of the spinal cord dorsal horn with the development of neuropathic pain in multiple models of disease or injury. Given the importance of dendritic spines in synaptic transmission, it is possible that studying dendritic spines could lead to new therapeutic approaches for managing intractable pain. In this review article, we highlight the emergent role of dendritic spines in neuropathic pain, as well as discuss the potential for studying dendritic spines for the development of new therapeutics.