Circulating polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and lipid mediators were extracted from human red blood cells and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method encompassed 13 different PUFAs and lipid mediators, however, due to instrument capability only five were confidently quantified (EPA, ALA, AA, DHA, and LA). The extraction focused on free polyunsaturated fatty acids since they have a strong correlation with health in humans. The study design was a secondary analysis of the OPPERA-2 study of chronic overlapping pain conditions in adults. The data included are: a) raw LC-MS/MS data (.raw); b) processed data (.xlsx) including chromatographic peak area for each compound and a concentration (ng/mL) based on external calibration with internal standardization using pure analytical grade standards and heavy-isotope labeled internal standards; c) study participant demographics and phenotypes (.xlsx). This dataset consisting of circulating PUFA quantities measured in 605 humans has been made publicly available for analysis and interpretation.