The pathophysiology of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is multifactorial. Identifying the clinical characteristics and cystoscopic findings of bladder-centered IC/BPS facilitates optimal treatment strategies targeting the diseased urinary bladder. Patients with Hunner's lesion (HIC) and without Hunner's lesion (NHIC) should be treated differently. Based on the histopathological findings, NHIC can be treated with intravesical instillation of urothelial protective agents, such as hyaluronic acid, to cover the urothelial defects. In non-responders, chronic inflammation and higher urothelial dysfunction can be treated with intravesical botulinum toxin A injection, platelet-rich plasma injection, or low-energy shock wave treatment to reduce inflammation, increase tissue regeneration, and improve the urothelial barrier. Patients with HIC should be treated with electrocauterization first; augmentation enterocystoplasty should only be used in end-stage HIC when the contracted bladder is refractory to other treatments. The antiviral agent, valacyclovir, can be used in patients with HIC, small bladder capacity, and high-grade glomerulations. In addition, behavioral modification is always recommended from the beginning of treatment. Treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy interventions in combination with bladder therapy can reduce anxiety and improve treatment outcomes. Herein, recent advances in the pathophysiology and novel treatments for IC/BPS are reviewed.