Bruxism, a common medical condition characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible, can occur during sleep, when it is known as sleep bruxism (SB), or during wakefulness, when it is known as awake bruxism (AB). Although bruxism often causes headaches, temporomandibular joint pain, masticatory muscle pain, mechanical tooth wear, prosthodontic complications and cracked teeth, there is still not enough data to define and support a standardised approach to its treatment. The aim of this review was to present the pathophysiology, consequences, types and treatment methods of bruxism in order to increase readers' knowledge of this topic. Differences between awake and nocturnal bruxism are included, as well as risk factors and indicators visible during the clinical examination of affected patients. Among the causes we consider are genetics, stress, oral parafunctions and changes in the Central Nervous System (CNS). Potential and common methods of treatment are presented, along with suggested guidelines that should be followed when determining an appropriate treatment method. We draw attention to the notably dynamic development of bruxism in today's society and the importance of informational and preventive projects, especially those targeted at high-risk patients as well as those targeted at specialists, in order to better tackle the bruxism 'epidemic'.