Previous studies have reported that L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL), but not L5 spinal nerve transection (SNT), enhances anoctamin-1 in injured and uninjured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of rats suggesting some differences in function of the type of nerve injury. The role of bestrophin-1 in these conditions is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of bestrophin-1 in rats subjected to L5 spinal nerve transection (SNT) and L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). SNT up-regulated bestrophin-1 protein expression in injured L5 and uninjured L4 DRG at day 7, whereas it enhanced GAP43 mainly in injured, but also in uninjured DRG. In contrast, SNL enhanced GAP43 at day 1 and 7, while bestrophin-1 expression increased only at day 1 after nerve injury. Accordingly, intrathecal injection of the bestrophin-1 blocker CaCC (1-10 µg) reverted SNT- or SNL-induced tactile allodynia in a concentration-dependent manner. Intrathecal injection of CaCC (10 µg) prevented SNT-induced upregulation of bestrophin-1 and GAP43 at day 7. In contrast, CaCC did not affect SNL-induced up-regulation of GAP43 nor bestrophin-1. Bestrophin-1 was mainly expressed in small- and medium-size neurons in naïve rats, while SNT increased bestrophin-1 immunoreactivity in CGRP+, but not in IB4+ neuronal cells in DRG. Intrathecal injection of bestrophin-1 plasmid (pCMVBest) induced tactile allodynia and increased bestrophin-1 expression in DRG and spinal cord in naïve rats. CaCC reversed bestrophin-1 overexpression-induced tactile allodynia and restored bestrophin-1 expression. Our data suggest that bestrophin-1 plays a relevant role in neuropathic pain induced by SNT, but not by SNL. Perspective: SNT, but not SNL, up-regulates bestrophin-1 and GAP43 protein expression in injured L5 and uninjured L4 DRG. Moreover, SNT increases bestrophin-1 immunoreactivity in CGRP+ neurons in DRG, while bestrophin-1 overexpression induces allodynia. CaCC reduces allodynia and restores bestrophin-1 expression induced by bestrophin-1 transfection. Our data suggest that spinal bestrophin-1 in DRG is differentially regulated depending on the neuropathic pain model.