The anesthetic management of fetal operative procedures (FOP) is a highly debated topic. Literature on fetal pain perception and response to external stimuli is rapidly expanding. Nonetheless, there is no consensus on the fetal consciousness nor on the instruments to measure pain levels. As a result, no guidelines or clinical recommendations on anesthesia modality during FOP are available. This systematic literature review aimed to collect the available knowledge on the most common fetal interventions, and summarize the reported outcomes for each anesthetic approach. Additional aim was to provide an overall evaluation of the most commonly used anesthetic agents.