Orofacial neuropathic pain indicates pain caused by a lesion or diseases of the somatosensory nervous system. It is challenging for the clinician to diagnose and manage orofacial neuropathic pain conditions due to the considerable variability between individual clinical presentations and a lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying the etiology and pathogenesis. In the last few decades, researchers have developed diagnostic criteria, questionnaires, and clinical assessment methods for the diagnosis of orofacial neuropathic pain. Recently, researchers have observed the role of autophagy in neuronal dysfunction as well as in the modulation of neuropathic pain. On this basis, in the present review, we highlight the characteristics, classification, and clinical assessment of orofacial neuropathic pain. Additionally, we introduce autophagy and its potential role in the modulation of orofacial neuropathic pain, along with a brief overview of the pathogenesis, which in future may reveal new possible targets for treating this condition.