Pain Outcomes Measurement Bibliography

A curated list of research papers related to pain-treatment outcomes measurement can be navigated using the box on the right called "Table of Contents."

Systematic & Theoretical Concerns

Alexanderson H, Del Grande M, Bingham CO,3rd, et al. Patient-reported outcomes and adult patients' disease experience in the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Report from the OMERACT 11 myositis special interest groupJ Rheumatol. 2014. doi:

Cella D, Gershon R, Lai JS, Choi S. The future of outcomes measurement: Item banking, tailored short-forms, and computerized adaptive assessmentQual Life Res. 2007;16 Suppl 1:133-141. doi:

Chapman CR, Casey KL, Dubner R, Foley KM, Gracely RH, Reading AE. Pain measurement: An overview. Pain. 1985;22(1):1-31. 

Comer SD, Zacny JP, Dworkin RH, et al. Core outcome measures for opioid abuse liability laboratory assessment studies in humans: IMMPACT recommendationsPain. 2012;153(12):2315-2324. doi:

Farrar JT. What is clinically meaningful: Outcome measures in pain clinical trials. Clin J Pain. 2000;16(2 Suppl):S106-12.

Gelinas C, Loiselle CG, LeMay S, Ranger M, Bouchard E, McCormack D. Theoretical, psychometric, and pragmatic issues in pain measurementPain Manag Nurs. 2008;9(3):120-130. doi:

Gilron I, Jensen MP. Clinical trial methodology of pain treatment studies: Selection and measurement of self-report primary outcomes for efficacyReg Anesth Pain Med. 2011;36(4):374-381. doi:

Guyatt GH, Feeny DH, Patrick DL. Measuring health-related quality of lifeAnn Intern Med. 1993;118(8):622-629. doi:

Hedman E, Ljotsson B, Lindefors N. Cognitive behavior therapy via the internet: A systematic review of applications, clinical efficacy and cost-effectivenessExpert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2012;12(6):745-764. doi:

Horn SD, Gassaway J. Practice based evidence: Incorporating clinical heterogeneity and patient-reported outcomes for comparative effectiveness researchMed Care. 2010;48(6 Suppl):S17-22. doi:

Jensen M. Measurement of pain. In: Fishman SM, Ballantyne JC, Rathmell JP, eds. Bonica's management of pain. 4th ed. Media, PA: Williams & Wilkins; 2010:251.

Jensen MP, Hu X, Potts SL, Gould EM. Single vs composite measures of pain intensity: Relative sensitivity for detecting treatment effectsPain. 2013;154(4):534-538. doi:

Little RJ, Cohen ML, Dickersin K, et al. The design and conduct of clinical trials to limit missing dataStat Med. 2012;31(28):3433-3443. doi:

Main CJ, Waddell G. Behavioral responses to examination. A reappraisal of the interpretation of "nonorganic signs". Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1998;23(21):2367-2371. 

Moore RA, Derry S, Wiffen PJ. Challenges in design and interpretation of chronic pain trialsBr J Anaesth. 2013;111(1):38-45. doi:

Moore RA, Mhuircheartaigh RJ, Derry S, McQuay HJ. Mean analgesic consumption is inappropriate for testing analgesic efficacy in post-operative pain: Analysis and alternative suggestionEur J Anaesthesiol. 2011;28(6):427-432. doi:

Nicholas MK. The pain self-efficacy questionnaire: Taking pain into accountEur J Pain. 2007;11(2):153-163. doi:

Nicholas MK, Asghari A, Blyth FM. What do the numbers mean? normative data in chronic pain measuresPain. 2008;134(1-2):158-173. doi:

Prkachin, K. M., Craig,K.D.,. Expressing pain: The communication and interpretation of facial pain signalsJ Nonverbal Behav. 1995;19(4):191-206. doi:

Sanderson T, Morris M, Calnan M, Richards P, Hewlett S. What outcomes from pharmacologic treatments are important to people with rheumatoid arthritis? creating the basis of a patient core setArthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010;62(5):640-646. doi:

Segerdahl M. Pain outcome variables--a never ending story? Pain. 2011;152(5):961-962. doi:

Smith SM, Wang AT, Pereira A, et al. Discrepancies between registered and published primary outcome specifications in analgesic trials: ACTTION systematic review and recommendationsPain. 2013;154(12):2769-2774. doi:

Srikandarajah S, Gilron I. Systematic review of movement-evoked pain versus pain at rest in postsurgical clinical trials and meta-analyses: A fundamental distinction requiring standardized measurementPain. 2011;152(8):1734-1739. doi:

Turk DC, Dworkin RH, Revicki D, et al. Identifying important outcome domains for chronic pain clinical trials: An IMMPACT survey of people with painPain. 2008;137(2):276-285. doi:

Von Korff M, Ormel J, Keefe FJ, Dworkin SF. Grading the severity of chronic pain. Pain. 1992;50(2):133-149.

Witkin LR, Farrar JT, Ashburn MA. Can assessing chronic pain outcomes data improve outcomes? Pain Med. 2013;14(6):779-791. doi:

Wong DL, Baker CM. Pain in children: Comparison of assessment scales. Pediatr Nurs. 1988;14(1):9-17.

Working Group on Health Outcomes for Older Persons with Multiple Chronic Conditions. Universal health outcome measures for older persons with multiple chronic conditionsJ Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(12):2333-2341. doi:

Chronic Pain

Beale M, Cella M, Williams AC. Comparing patients' and clinician-researchers' outcome choice for psychological treatment of chronic painPain. 2011;152(10):2283-2286. doi:

Blanchard, Edward B., Andrasik, Frank, Neff, Debra F., Jurish, Susan E., O'Keefe,Dennis M.,. Social validation of the headache diaryBETH Behavior Therapy. 1981;12(5):711-715.

Bolger N, Davis A, Rafaeli E. Diary methods: Capturing life as it is livedAnnu Rev Psychol. 2003;54:579-616. doi:

Cane D, Nielson WR, McCarthy M, Mazmanian D. Pain-related activity patterns: Measurement, interrelationships, and associations with psychosocial functioningClin J Pain. 2013;29(5):435-442. doi:

Chapman JR, Norvell DC, Hermsmeyer JT, et al. Evaluating common outcomes for measuring treatment success for chronic low back painSpine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36(21 Suppl):S54-68. doi:

Cornelius VR, Sauzet O, Williams JE, et al. Adverse event reporting in randomised controlled trials of neuropathic pain: Considerations for future practicePain. 2013;154(2):213-220. doi:

Deyo RA, Diehl AK. Measuring physical and psychosocial function in patients with low-back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1983;8(6):635-642.

Farrar JT, Young JP,Jr, LaMoreaux L, Werth JL, Poole RM. Clinical importance of changes in chronic pain intensity measured on an 11-point numerical pain rating scalePain. 2001;94(2):149-158. doi:

Fenton G, Morley S. A tale of two RCTs: Using randomized controlled trials to benchmark routine clinical (psychological) treatments for chronic painPain. 2013;154(10):2108-2119. doi:

Garcia SF, Cella D, Clauser SB, et al. Standardizing patient-reported outcomes assessment in cancer clinical trials: A patient-reported outcomes measurement information system initiativeJ Clin Oncol. 2007;25(32):5106-5112. doi:

Hill JC, Dunn KM, Lewis M, et al. A primary care back pain screening tool: Identifying patient subgroups for initial treatmentArthritis Rheum. 2008;59(5):632-641. doi:

Howe TE, Dawson LJ, Syme G, Duncan L, Reid J. Evaluation of outcome measures for use in clinical practice for adults with musculoskeletal conditions of the knee: A systematic reviewMan Ther. 2012;17(2):100-118. doi:

Jensen MP. The validity and reliability of pain measures in adults with cancerJ Pain. 2003;4(1):2-21. doi:

Jensen MP, Karoly P, Braver S. The measurement of clinical pain intensity: A comparison of six methods. Pain. 1986;27(1):117-126.

Jensen MP, Turner JA, Romano JM, Fisher LD. Comparative reliability and validity of chronic pain intensity measures. Pain. 1999;83(2):157-162.

Katz NP. The measurement of symptoms and side effects in clinical trials of chronic painContemp Clin Trials. 2012;33(5):903-911. doi:

Keefe FJ, Block AR, Keefe FJ, Block AR. Chronic low back pain observationDevelopment of an observation method for assessing pain behavior in chronic low back pain patients, Behavior Therapy. 1982;13:363-375.

Lorig K, Chastain RL, Ung E, Shoor S, Holman HR. Development and evaluation of a scale to measure perceived self-efficacy in people with arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1989;32(1):37-44. 

Martin NJ, Holroyd KA, Rokicki LA. The headache self-efficacy scale: Adaptation to recurrent headaches. Headache. 1993;33(5):244-248. 

Rosenstiel AK, Keefe FJ. The use of coping strategies in chronic low back pain patients: Relationship to patient characteristics and current adjustment. Pain. 1983;17(1):33-44.

Tubach F, Ravaud P, Martin-Mola E, et al. Minimum clinically important improvement and patient acceptable symptom state in pain and function in rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, chronic back pain, hand osteoarthritis, and hip and knee osteoarthritis: Results from a prospective multinational studyArthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012;64(11):1699-1707. doi:

Acute Pain

Barden J, Edwards JE, Mason L, McQuay HJ, Moore RA. Outcomes in acute pain trials: Systematic review of what was reported? Pain. 2004;109(3):351-356. doi:

Cepeda MS, Africano JM, Polo R, Alcala R, Carr DB. What decline in pain intensity is meaningful to patients with acute pain? Pain. 2003;105(1-2):151-157. doi:

Max M, Laska E. Single-dose analgesic comparisons. In: M Max, R Portenoy, E Laska, ed. Advances in pain research and therapy. Vol 18 ed. Raven Press, Ltd, New York; 1991:55. 

Pain by Age-group

Berde CB, Walco GA, Krane EJ, et al. Pediatric analgesic clinical trial designs, measures, and extrapolation: Report of an FDA scientific workshop. Pediatrics. 2012;129(2):354-364. doi:

Grunau RV, Craig KD. Pain expression in neonates: Facial action and cry. Pain. 1987;28(3):395-410.

Jensen MP, Karoly P. Self-report scales and procedures for assessing pain in adults. In: Turk DC, Melzack R, eds. Handbook of pain assessment. 3rd ed. New York: Guilford Press.; 2011:19. 

Specific Pain Inventories

Amtmann D, Cook KF, Jensen MP, et al. Development of a PROMIS item bank to measure pain interferencePain. 2010;150(1):173-182. doi:

Cella D, Riley W, Stone A, et al. The patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) developed and tested its first wave of adult self-reported health outcome item banks: 2005-2008J Clin Epidemiol. 2010;63(11):1179-1194. doi:

Cella D, Yount S, Rothrock N, et al. The patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS): Progress of an NIH roadmap cooperative group during its first two yearsMed Care. 2007;45(5 Suppl 1):S3-S11. doi:

Cleeland CS, Ryan KM. Pain assessment: Global use of the brief pain inventory. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1994;23(2):129-138.

Cook KF, Keefe F, Jensen MP, et al. Development and validation of a new self-report measure of pain behaviorsPain. 2013;154(12):2867-2876. doi:

Gordon DB, Polomano RC, Pellino TA, et al. Revised american pain society patient outcome questionnaire (APS-POQ-R) for quality improvement of pain management in hospitalized adults: Preliminary psychometric evaluationJ Pain. 2010;11(11):1172-1186. doi:

Irwin DE, Gross HE, Stucky BD, et al. Development of six PROMIS pediatrics proxy-report item banks. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2012;10:22-7525-10-22. doi:

Kerns RD, Turk DC, Rudy TE. The west haven-yale multidimensional pain inventory (WHYMPI). Pain. 1985;23(4):345-356.

Linton SJ, Hallden K. Can we screen for problematic back pain? A screening questionnaire for predicting outcome in acute and subacute back pain. Clin J Pain. 1998;14(3):209-215.

Margolis RB, Chibnall JT, Tait RC. Test-retest reliability of the pain drawing instrument. Pain. 1988;33(1):49-51.

Melzack R. The short-form McGill pain questionnaire. Pain. 1987;30(2):191-197.

Melzack R. The McGill pain questionnaire: Major properties and scoring methods. Pain. 1975;1(3):277-299.

Revicki DA, Chen WH, Harnam N, et al. Development and psychometric analysis of the PROMIS pain behavior item bankPain. 2009;146(1-2):158-169. doi:

Revicki DA, Kawata AK, Harnam N, Chen WH, Hays RD, Cella D. Predicting EuroQol (EQ-5D) scores from the patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) global items and domain item banks in a united states sampleQual Life Res. 2009;18(6):783-791. doi:

Rothaug J, Zaslansky R, Schwenkglenks M, et al. Patients' perception of postoperative pain management: Validation of the international pain outcomes (IPO) questionnaireJ Pain. 2013;14(11):1361-1370. doi:

Sullivan MJL, Bishop SR, Pivik J, Sullivan MJL, Bishop SR, Pivik J. Pain catastrophizing scalePsychol Assess. 1995;7(4):524-532.

Swinkels-Meewisse EJ, Swinkels RA, Verbeek AL, Vlaeyen JW, Oostendorp RA. Psychometric properties of the tampa scale for kinesiophobia and the fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire in acute low back painMan Ther. 2003;8(1):29-36. doi:

Varni JW, Burwinkle TM, Limbers CA, Szer IS. The PedsQL as a patient-reported outcome in children and adolescents with fibromyalgia: An analysis of OMERACT domainsHealth Qual Life Outcomes. 2007;5:9. doi: