Vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy (VIPN) is a common adverse effect of vincristine (VCR) for which there is no preventative or curative treatment. Here, we report a case of a patient suffering from severe VCR-related neurotoxicity. To explore the possible causes of severe VIPN in this patient, a set of genes involved in VCR metabolism, transport or are related to the cytoskeleton, microtubules, and inherited neurological diseases gene polymorphisms were examined via pharmacogenetic analyses. The genotyping results revealed the presence of a complex pattern of polymorphisms in , miR-4481 and miR-3117. A comprehensive understanding of all the pharmacogenetic risk factors for VIPN may explain the occurrence of severe neurotoxicity in our patient. This case brings to light the potential importance of pharmacogenetic testing in clinical practice. It also exemplifies the importance of developing early-detection strategies to optimize treatment regimens through prior risk stratification while reducing adverse drug reactions and personalizing therapy.