Itching is an unpleasant sensation that provokes the desire to scratch. In general, itching is caused by dermatologic diseases, but it can also be caused by systemic diseases. Since itching hampers patients' quality of life, it is important to understand the appropriate treatment and pathophysiology of pruritus caused by systemic diseases to improve the quality of life. Mechanisms are being studied through animal or human studies, and various treatments are being tested through clinical trials. We report current trends of two major systemic diseases: chronic kidney disease and cholestatic liver disease. This review summarizes the causes and pathophysiology of systemic diseases with pruritus and appropriate treatments. This article will contribute to patients' quality of life. Further research will help understand the mechanisms and develop new strategies in the future.