Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a disabling secondary headache disorder, with challenging consequences for affected patients and health care resources. It is defined as headache that occurs on ≥ 15 days per month in a patient known to have primary headache disorder due to regular overuse of acute or abortive headache medication for more than 3 months. MOH affects 1-2% of the world's population in their productive age. New advances in headache neurosciences and development of new treatment options specific for headache, along with an understanding of the clinical profile and pathophysiological mechanisms of MOH, can help improve patient outcomes and decrease the burden on the health care system. This work will review MOH, identify updated clinical assessments and recent management approaches.