Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory skin disorder manifesting by eczematous lesions and intense pruritus. Atopic dermatitis develops primarily as a result of an epidermal barrier defect and immunological imbalance. Advances in understanding these pathogenetic hallmarks, and particularly the complex role of interleukins as atopic dermatitis drivers, resulted in achieving significant therapeutic breakthroughs. Novel medications involve monoclonal antibodies specifically blocking the function of selected interleukins and small molecules such as Janus kinase inhibitors limiting downstream signaling to reduce the expression of a wider array of proinflammatory factors. Nevertheless, a subset of patients remains refractory to those treatments, highlighting the complexity of atopic dermatitis immunopathogenesis in different populations. In this review, we address the immunological heterogeneity of atopic dermatitis endotypes and phenotypes and present novel interleukin-oriented therapies for this disease.