Pain is an unpleasant subjective experience that is usually modified by complex multidimensional neuropsychological processes. Increasing numbers of neuroimaging studies in humans have characterized the hierarchical brain areas forming a pain matrix, which is involved in the different dimensions of pain components. Although mechanistic investigations have been performed extensively in rodents, the homologous brain regions involved in the multidimensional pain components have not been fully understood in the rodent brain. Herein, we successfully identified several brain regions activated in response to mechanical allodynia in neuropathic pain rat models using an alternative neuroimaging method based on 2-deoxy-2-[F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scanning. Regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex, primary somatosensory cortex hindlimb region, and the centrolateral thalamic nucleus were identified. Moreover, brain activity in these regions was positively correlated with mechanical allodynia-related behavioral changes. These results suggest that FDG PET imaging in neuropathic pain model rats enables the evaluation of regional brain activity encoding the multidimensional pain aspect. It could thus be a fascinating tool to bridge the gap between preclinical and clinical investigations.