Euphorbium is the resinous secretion of Euphorbia resinifera Berg. According to the record, Euphorbium was first used by Roman doctors to treat the emperor's joint pain. In China, it is applied in folk medicine to treat damp-cold or mucous diseases, such as arthralgia and ascites, etc. This herb is used for rheumatoid arthritis and skin tumors in the folklore of northeastern Brazil. Triterpenes are mainly characteristic constituents of Euphorbium, and possibly possess anti-rheumatoid arthritis.