Felicola subrostratus is the only species of louse affecting domestic cats. Although it is considered a rare ectoparasite of pet cats, it occurs mainly in stray or shelter animals and is sometimes associated with intense pruritus and secondary bacterial infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of the topical formulation of esafoxolaner, eprinomectin and praziquantel (NexGard Combo, Boehringer Ingelheim) in cats for the treatment of naturally acquired chewing lice infestation in a multi-site, positive-control, blinded clinical field study. Thirty-one domestic cats presenting natural F. subrostratus infestation were included in the study. The animals had not been treated with any ectoparasiticide within the previous 60 days. After inclusion, each cat was randomly assigned to one of the two groups: group 1, 14 cats treated with NexGard Combo or group 2, 17 cats treated with Frontline Combo. A clinical evaluation was performed at days 0 (inclusion), 14 and 30 and consisted in scoring the skin lesions and symptoms and scoring the presence of lice. On day 30, all cats from both groups scored 0 for the presence of live lice and no dead lice were found, demonstrating 100% efficacy. The clinical scores significantly improved from day 0 to day 30 in both groups. During the 30 days of surveillance, no reinfestations due to the hatching of eggs were observed and none of the cats had any adverse reactions. Esafoxolaner demonstrated high efficacy for the treatment of F. subrostratus infestation.