Chronic low back pain (cLBP) is a common health condition worldwide and a leading cause of disability with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 80-90% in industrialized countries. However, we have had limited success in treating cLBP likely due to its non-specific heterogeneous nature that goes beyond detectable anatomical changes. We propose that omics technologies as precision medicine tools are well suited to provide insight into its pathophysiology and provide diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. Therefore, in this review, we explore the current state of omics technologies in the diagnosis and classification of cLBP. We identify factors that may serve as markers to differentiate between acute and chronic cases of low back pain (LBP). Finally, we also discuss some challenges that must be overcome to successfully apply precision medicine to the diagnosis and treatment of cLBP.