Bothnian palmoplantar keratoderma (PPKB, MIM600231) is an autosomal dominant form of diffuse non-epidermolytic PPK characterized by spontaneous yellowish-white PPK associated with a spongy appearance after water-immersion. It is due to heterozygous mutations. We report four patients carrying a novel heterozygous mutation (c.125T>A; p.(Ile42Asn)), and belonging to the same French family. Early palmoplantar swelling (before one year of age), pruritus and hyperhidrosis were constant. The PPK was finally characterized as transgrediens, non-progrediens, diffuse PPK with a clear delineation between normal and affected skin. The cutaneous modifications at water-immersion test, "hand-in-the-bucket sign", were significantly evident after 3 to 6 min of immersion in the children and father, respectively. AQP5 protein is expressed in eccrine sweat glands (ESG), salivary and airway submucosal glands. In PPKB, gain of function mutations seem to widen the channel diameter of ESG and increase water movement. Thus, swelling seems to be induced by hypotonicity with water entrance into cells, while hyperhidrosis is the result of an increased cytosolic calcium concentration.