Chronic wounds, ie, non-healing ulcers, have a prevalence of ~1% in the general population. Chronic wounds strongly affect the quality of life and generate considerable medical costs. A fraction of chronic wounds will heal within months of appropriate treatment; however, a significant fraction of patients will develop therapy-refractory chronic wounds, leading to chronic pain, infection, and amputation. Given the paucity of therapeutic options for refractory wounds, cell therapy and in particular the use of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASC) has emerged as a promising concept. ASC can be used as autologous or allogeneic cells. They can be delivered in suspension or in 3D cultures within scaffolds. ASC can be used without further processing (stromal vascular fraction of the adipose tissue) or can be expanded in vitro. ASC-derived non-cellular components, such as conditioned media or exosomes, have also been investigated. Many in vitro and preclinical studies in animals have demonstrated the ASC efficacy on wounds. ASC efficiency appears to occurs mainly through their regenerative secretome. Hitherto, the majority of clinical trials focused mainly on safety issues. However more recently, a small number of randomized, well-controlled trials provided first convincing evidences for a clinical efficacy of ASC-based chronic wound therapies in humans. This brief review summarizes the current knowledge on the mechanism of action, delivery and efficacy of ASC in chronic wound therapy. It also discusses the scientific and pharmaceutical challenges to be solved before ASC-based wound therapy enters clinical reality.