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Original Research, Human Studies, Basic Neurobiology, Migraine/Headache

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Expression of vasopressin and its receptors in migraine-related regions in CNS and the trigeminal system: influence of sex.

Hypothalamus is a key region in migraine attacks. In addition, women are disproportionately affected by migraine. The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) system is an important key player in migraine pathophysiology. CGRP signaling could be a target of hormones that influence migraine. Our aim is to identify the expression of vasopressin and its receptors in the brain and in the trigeminovascular system with focus on the migraine-related regions and, furthermore, to examine the role of sex on the expression of neurohormones in the trigeminal ganglion.

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Childhood cancer confers increased risk of migraine – A Danish nationwide register study.

Investigations of migraine among childhood cancer survivors have predominantly relied on self-reported information and hospital discharge diagnoses. Alone, both approaches are liable to bias. We used Danish nationwide registers to obtain data on both prescriptions of acute migraine medications (antimigraines) and hospital discharge diagnoses of migraine to assess the relative risk of migraine across a wider spectrum of migraine presentations than previously studied.

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Effectiveness comparison of remote electrical neuromodulation and standard-care medications for acute treatment of chronic migraine: a analysis.

The current study compared the effectiveness of remote electrical neuromodulation (REN) to that of standard-care medications for acute treatments of migraine, using a within-subjects design. within-subject analysis was performed on data from 78 adult chronic migraine patients who participated in a clinical trial with REN, on four end points: single-treatment pain relief, single-treatment pain freedom, consistency of pain relief and consistency of pain freedom. No statistical differences were found between REN and the tested medications, in any of the effectiveness outcomes: single-treatment pain relief p = 0.056, single-treatment pain freedom p = 0.532, consistency of pain relief p = 0.369, consistency of pain freedom p = 1.00. The results suggest that REN may provide an effective non-pharmacological alternative for standard care abortive medications in individuals impacted by chronic migraine.

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A rose by another name? Characteristics that distinguish headache secondary to temporomandibular disorder from headache that is comorbid with TMD.

Co-occurring pain conditions that affect overlapping body regions are complicated by the distinction between primary versus secondary pain conditions. We investigate the occurrence of headache and painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in a community-based, cross-sectional study of U.S. adults in the Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA-II) study. A specific goal was to determine if headache attributed to TMD is separable from primary headache.Using DC/TMD and ICHD-3 criteria, three groups of individuals were created: a) headache without TMD; b) headache comorbid with TMD; and c) headache attributed to TMD. Regression models compared study groups according to demographic and comorbid characteristics, and post-hoc contrasts tested for differences. Descriptive statistics and Cohen's d effect size were computed, by group, for each predictor variable. Differences in continuous predictors were analyzed using one-way ANOVA.Nearly all demographic and comorbid variables distinguished the combined headache and TMD groups from the group with headache alone. Relative to the reference group with primary headache alone, markers related to headache, TMD, somatic pain processing, psychosocial, and health conditions were substantially greater in both headache comorbid with TMD and headache attributed to TMD, attesting to their qualitative similarities. However, effect sizes relative to the reference group were large for headache comorbid with TMD and larger again for headache attributed to TMD, attesting to their separability in quantitative terms.In summary, the presence of overlapping painful TMD and headache adds substantially to the biopsychosocial burden of headache and points to the importance of comprehensive assessment and differential management.

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Changes in brain connectivity linked to multisensory processing of pain modulation in migraine with acupuncture treatment.

Migraine without aura (MWoA) is a major neurological disorder with unsatisfactory adherence to current medications. Acupuncture has emerged as a promising method for treating MWoA. However, the brain mechanism underlying acupuncture is yet unclear. The present study aimed to examine the effects of acupuncture in regulating brain connectivity of the key regions in pain modulation. In this study, MWoA patients were recruited and randomly assigned to 4 weeks of real or sham acupuncture. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected before and after the treatment. A modern neuroimaging literature meta-analysis of 515 fMRI studies was conducted to identify pain modulation-related key regions as regions of interest (ROIs). Seed-to-voxel resting state-functional connectivity (rsFC) method and repeated-measures two-way analysis of variance were conducted to determine the interaction effects between the two groups and time (baseline and post-treatment). The changes in rsFC were evaluated between baseline and post-treatment in real and sham acupuncture groups, respectively. Clinical data at baseline and post-treatment were also recorded in order to determine between-group differences in clinical outcomes as well as correlations between rsFC changes and clinical effects. 40 subjects were involved in the final analysis. The current study demonstrated significant improvement in real acupuncture vs sham acupuncture on headache severity (monthly migraine days), headache impact (6-item Headache Impact Test), and health-related quality of life (Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire). Five pain modulation-related key regions, including the right amygdala (AMYG), left insula (INS), left medial orbital superior frontal gyrus (PFCventmed), left middle occipital gyrus (MOG), and right middle cingulate cortex (MCC), were selected based on the meta-analysis on brain imaging studies. This study found that 1) after acupuncture treatment, migraine patients of the real acupuncture group showed significantly enhanced connectivity in the right AMYG/MCC-left MTG and the right MCC-right superior temporal gyrus (STG) compared to that of the sham acupuncture group; 2) negative correlations were established between clinical effects and increased rsFC in the right AMYG/MCC-left MTG; 3) baseline right AMYG-left MTG rsFC predicts monthly migraine days reduction after treatment. The current results suggested that acupuncture may concurrently regulate the rsFC of two pain modulation regions in the AMYG and MCC. MTG and STG may be the key nodes linked to multisensory processing of pain modulation in migraine with acupuncture treatment. These findings highlighted the potential of acupuncture for migraine management and the mechanisms underlying the modulation effects.

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Vascular Risk Score and Associations With Past, Current, or Future Migraine in Women: Cohort Study.

Migraine has consistently been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. It remains, however, unclear to what extent cardiovascular risk profiles might be linked with migraine activity status, and how these profiles relate to the development of migraine.

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Development and Validation of the Predictive Model for the Differentiation between Vestibular Migraine and Meniere’s Disease.

(1) Background: Vestibular migraine (VM) and Meniere's disease (MD) share multiple features in terms of clinical presentations and auditory-vestibular dysfunctions, e.g., vertigo, hearing loss, and headache. Therefore, differentiation between VM and MD is of great significance. (2) Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 110 patients with VM and 110 patients with MD. We at first established a regression equation by using logistic regression analysis. Furthermore, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predicted value (PV), and negative PV of screened parameters were assessed and intuitively displayed by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve). Then, two visualization tools, i.e., nomograph and applet, were established for convenience of clinicians. Furthermore, other patients with VM or MD were recruited to validate the power of the equation by ROC curve and the Gruppo Italiano per la Valutazione degli Interventi in Terapia Intensiva (GiViTI) calibration belt. (3) Results: The clinical manifestations and auditory-vestibular functions could help differentiate VM from MD, including attack frequency (X5), phonophobia (X13), electrocochleogram (ECochG) (X18), head-shaking test (HST) (X23), ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (o-VEMP) (X27), and horizontal gain of vestibular autorotation test (VAT) (X30). On the basis of statistically significant parameters screened by Chi-square test and multivariable double logistic regression analysis, we established a regression equation: P = 1/[1 + e] (P, predictive value; e, natural logarithm). Nomographs and applets were used to visualize our result. After validation, the prediction model showed good discriminative power and calibrating power. (4) Conclusions: Our study suggested that a diagnostic algorithm based on available clinical features and an auditory-vestibular function regression equation is clinically effective and feasible as a differentiating tool and could improve the differential diagnosis between VM and MD.

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Is mindfulness associated with lower pain reactivity and connectivity of the default mode network? A replication and extension study in healthy and episodic migraine participants.

Formal training in mindfulness-based practices promotes reduced experimental and clinical pain, which may be driven by reduced emotional pain reactivity and undergirded by alterations in the default mode network, implicated in mind-wandering and self-referential processing. Recent results published in this journal suggest that mindfulness, defined here as the day-to-day tendency to maintain a non-reactive mental state in the absence of training, associates with lower pain reactivity, greater heat-pain thresholds, and resting-state default mode network functional connectivity in healthy adults in a similar manner to trained mindfulness. The extent to which these findings extend to chronic pain samples and replicate in healthy samples is unknown. Using data from healthy adults (n = 36) and episodic migraine patients (n = 98) and replicating previously published methods, we observed no significant association between mindfulness and heat-pain threshold, pain intensity or unpleasantness, or pain catastrophizing in healthy controls, or between mindfulness and headache frequency, severity, impactor pain catastrophizing in patients. There was no association between default mode network connectivity and mindfulness in either sample when probed via seed-based functional connectivity analyses. In post-hoc whole brain exploratory analyses, a meta-analytically derived default mode network node (i.e., posterior cingulate cortex) showed connectivity with regions unassociated with pain processing as a function of mindfulness, such that healthy adults higher in mindfulness showed greater functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex-and cerebellum. Collectively, these findings suggest that the relationship between mindfulness and default mode network functional connectivity may be nuanced or non-robust, and encourage further investigation of how mindfulness relates to pain. Perspective: This study found few significant associations between dispositional mindfulness and pain, pain reactivity and default mode connectivity in healthy adults and migraine patients. The relationship between mindfulness and default mode network connectivity may be nuanced or non-robust.

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Altered cortical trigeminal fields excitability by spreading depolarization revealed with functional ultrasound imaging combined with electrophysiology.

Spreading depolarization (SD), usually termed cortical spreading depression has been proposed as the pathophysiological substrate of migraine aura and as an endogenous trigger of headache pain. The links between neurovascular coupling and cortical craniofacial nociceptive activities modulated by SD were assessed by combining local field potential (LFPs) recordings in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) with functional ultrasound (fUS) imaging of S1 and caudal insular (INS) cortices of anesthetized male rats. A single SD wave triggered in the primary visual cortex elicited an ipsilateral, quadriphasic hemodynamic and electrophysiological response in S1 with an early phase consisting of concomitant increases of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and LFPs. A transient hypoperfusion was then correlated with the beginning of the neuronal silence, followed by a strong increase of rCBV while synaptic activities remained inhibited.LFPs and rCBV recovery period was followed by a progressive increase in S1 and INS baseline activities and facilitation of cortical responses evoked by periorbital cutaneous receptive fields stimulation. Sensitization of cortical ophthalmic fields by SD was bilateral, occurred with precise spatiotemporal profiles and was significantly reduced by pre-treatment with a NMDA antagonist. Combined high-resolution assessing of neurovascular coupling and electrophysiological activities has revealed a useful preclinical tool for deciphering central sensitization mechanisms involved in migraine attacks.A crucial unsolved issue is whether visual aura and migraine headache are parallel or sequential processes. Here we show that a single spreading depolarization (SD) wave triggered from the primary visual cortex is powerful enough to elicit progressive, sustained increases of hemodynamic and sensory responses to percutaneous periorbital noxious stimuli recorded in S1 and Insular ophthalmic fields. Sensitization of cortical ophthalmic fields by SD was bilateral, occurred with precise spatiotemporal profiles and was significantly reduced by pre-treatment with a NMDA antagonist. Combined high-resolution assessing of neurovascular coupling and electrophysiological activities has revealed a useful preclinical tool for deciphering central sensitization mechanisms involved in migraine attacks.

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Population-based prevalence of cranial autonomic symptoms in migraine and proposed diagnostic appendix criteria.

Migraine with cranial autonomic symptoms is well described in the literature, but its prevalence in previous studies varies enormously. A precise estimate of the prevalence in a population-based material is important because migraine with cranial autonomic symptoms might represent an endophenotype, in which genetic and pathophysiological features differ from those without cranial autonomic features. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to estimate the prevalence in a big population-based sample using both questionnaire-based diagnosis (N = 12,620) and interview-based diagnosis (N = 302). We validate questionnaire-based diagnosis of migraine with cranial autonomic symptoms and develop the first diagnostic criteria for future research of this possible endophenotype.

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